I don’t think bears search for food in the tree tops much. They would be focused on what’s on the ground or within arms reach. Conifers don’t have much to offer in the way of Fall color and the Aspen and Birch leaves turn yellow and then brown and then fall off, all within a day or two. So if you want to observe the Autumn colors in Denali, look down like the bears.
Around 300 to 350 grizzly bears live in the park on the north side of the Alaska Range. You can see them on open tundra, and along the gravel bars of streams and rivers. About 80% of a Denali grizzly’s diet is roots, berries, bulbs, tubers and fresh vegetation. They have long claws for digging. They also eat ground squirrels, caribou, moose and sheep when they can catch them. Along the coast, their larger cousins eat a lot of salmon but there are none here. Grizzlies hibernate from October to April so September is their last chance to build fat reserves before the long sleep.
It’s hard to believe that these would feed a 600 pound grizzly, let alone fatten him. The name “bearberry” for the plant derives from the edible fruit which is a favorite food of bears. The fruit, also called bearberries, are edible and are sometimes gathered for food. The leaves of the plant are used in herbal medicine.
I’ve a few more photos of Denali that I’ll share later but tomorrow I think I’ll spend a little time on Glacier Bay National Park.
This shot was taken from 1300 to 1500 yards distant. I could have used a longer glass but wasn’t prepared to even spot anything this far away (I have 71 year old eyes). Fortunately, they were silhouetted nicely on the ridge. This is a mother grizzly and her 3 cubs in their second season.
“Relegating grizzlies to Alaska is about like relegating happiness to heaven; one may never get there”. – Aldo Leopold (in “A Sand County Almanac”, 1948)
This one was about 200 yards away down in a river bed. You can see the characteristic hump on its back and the sun shining through the lighter hairs which gives the Grizzly its name.
Nikky was much closer. Between 5 and 10 yards!! This wasn’t in Denali; it was one of the hiking trails around Mendenhall Glacier outside of Juneau a few days before. We were standing on a narrow wooden bridge over a creek with the guide pointing out some spawning salmon below. Nikky came out of the bushes right where the bridge rejoined the path, looked at us as if she wanted to pass, then turned and sauntered up the trail. She frequents this area and is well known. In past seasons she has been accompanied by a couple of cubs. Fortunately, because of the close encounter, she was alone this time. She had been captured at some point and wore a radio collar around her neck.
“When all the dangerous cliffs are fenced off, all the trees that might fall on people are cut down, all of the insects that bite have been poisoned … and all of the grizzlies are dead because they are occasionally dangerous, the wilderness will not be made safe. Rather, the safety will have destroyed the wilderness.” – R. Yorke Edwards (Canadian environmentalist)
Yesterday I promised to show you some of the creatures that inhabit the Tundra at Denali. Today, it’ll be Moose of which there are about 1800 resident in the park. It was the rut, or breeding season when these photos were taken. The bulls can be very aggressive during this time. They’re very fast but fortunately their large antlers (up to seven feet wide) hinder them from turning very sharply. This would be good if there were any large trees to hide behind but as you can see in the photos there is only Taiga growth on the Tundra.
We caught this fellow having breakfast along the road at 0700 just a few miles past the visitor center.
Moose inhabiting Denali National Park and Preserve face many natural and human related factors that potentially affect behavior, distribution and population. These factors include weather, predation by wolves and bears, and human development. Moose in the park tend to live in forested areas that are often close to lakes and marshes and other bodies of water. Moose are also excellent swimmers. In the winter they remain in their territory, often in willow marshes, and form “yards”- they create paths in the deep snow as they paw for food. During the summer they graze on grasses, forbs, underwater vegetation, bushes, coniferous needles and deciduous leaves. Moose are very large, fast animals and are aggressive when disturbed. Adult males are called bulls, adult females are cows and the young are called calves. Moose are not typically found in large herds, they are mainly found as single animals or in small groups. Moose are the largest member of the deer family. Adult males can weigh 900-1400 pounds and females can weigh 700-1100 pounds. They have extremely long legs and stand 5-6 ½ feet at the shoulder. They use their long legs to wade into bodies of water and eat plants off the bottom. Their legs also enable them to paw through deep snow to reach food in winter. Their body is covered with black or very dark brown hair. They have a very large head with a dewlap of skin, called a “bell,” hanging down from the jaw. Moose breed in late September and early October. Bulls have large antlers that curve upward and back. The antlers are palmate; having a flattened area like the palm of your hand, with the fingers or tines pointing up. The bulls use these antlers to spar during the breeding season or rut. During the rut bulls and can be extremely aggressive and dangerous. The antlers are grown each spring and shed in early winter, after breeding season. The breeding season is one of the few times moose form small groups. Cows remain pregnant for about 8 months and calving occurs in late May through early June. Calves are born with a reddish brown coat with no spots and their coat darkens with age. Cows often have twins and sometimes triplets. There are approximately 1,800 moose on the north side of the Alaska Range in Denali National Park and Preserve. (source)
The next day we spotted this fellow struggling to shed the velvet from his antlers. He was alternately munching berries and scraping his antlers on any sturdy stick he could find. He’s got most of it off and you can see the antlers still carry blood from the connecting tissue. A large flap of velvet is still clinging to his left antler and I think it’s this he’s trying to scrape off.
This is one of two cows the previous fellow was keeping a close eye on as he dealt with his discomfort. We saw many more in our three days there but for being ungainly looking they can disappear among surprisingly small bushes too quickly to get a clear photo.